16 de Janeiro, 2013 - 23:00 ( Brasília )

Geopolítica

ZOPACAS - Declaração de Montevidéu




VII Encontro Ministerial da Zona de Paz e Cooperação do Atlântico Sul ZOPACAS
Declaração de Montevidéu

14 - 16 Janeiro 2013 Montevidéu

(Versão em português será divulgada oportunamente)

Released by Itamaray 16 Janeiro 2013

Preamble

We, the Ministers of the Member States of the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic, hereinafter referred to as “the Zone”, meeting in Montevideo on the 15th and 16th of January 2013, on the occasion of the Seventh Ministerial Meeting of “the Zone”;

1. Recalling the United Nations’ General Assembly Resolution 41/11 of October 1986, in which the Atlantic Ocean, in the region situated between Africa and South America, was solemnly declared “Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic”, as well as the other relevant United Nations General Assembly resolutions;

2. Recalling also the Final Declaration and Plan of Action adopted at the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of Member States of the Zone held in Luanda, Angola, on 18 and 19 June, 2007;

3. Welcoming the conclusions of the Brasilia Round Table held in 2010 with a view to further refine the identification of areas for enhanced cooperation among Member States of the Zone;

4. Welcoming also the convening by Uruguay of the Senior Officials Meeting of the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic, on the margins of the 67th United Nations General Assembly, on 28 September 2012, and expressing the view that this initiative should be held annually, with a view to intensifying dialogue and cooperation among Members of the Zone on issues of relevance to the Zone and to the international agenda;

5. Reaffirming the role of the Zone as a forum for increased integration among its Member States and reiterating the commitment to further strengthen dialogue and cooperation within the Zone and with organizations and mechanisms integrated by Member States, such as the African Union and Union of South American Nations (UNASUR);

6. Recalling, in this regard, the valuable contribution made by the 1st Africa-South America Summit held in Abuja on 26-30 November 2006, as well by the 2nd Africa-South America Summit, held in Isla Margarita, Venezuela, on 26-27 September 2009, which recognized ZPCSA as an important instrument for promoting peace and security and encouraged continued dialogue and cooperation within the Zone;

7. Underlining the need to build a world order based on a multipolarity of cooperation and solidarity, and expressing our firm commitment to contribute to the achievement of this goal through cooperation in the Zone and in our relations with other organizations and mechanisms, for the benefit of international peace and security;

8. Reaffirming our commitment to consolidating the South Atlantic as a Zone of Peace and Cooperation, free from nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction;
Purposes and Principles

9. Affirm that our endeavors are guided by the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and by full respect for the principles of International Law, including the principles of sovereignty and sovereign equality of states, territorial integrity, settlement of international disputes by peaceful means, and non-intervention in the internal affairs of states;

10. Reiterate that the South Atlantic must remain a region committed to promoting peace, security, cooperation, democracy, respect for human rights, sustainable development, economic prosperity, socioeconomic inclusion and cultural integration and solidarity among the Member States of the Zone;

11. Stress the need to continue to preserve the South Atlantic region free from the scourge of war, the instability of conflict, drug trafficking, piracy;

12. Reiterate the commitment of the Member States of the Zone to democracy and political pluralism and to the promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, and in this regard welcome the contribution made by the United Nations Human Rights Council and the Peacebuilding Commission, which represented a concrete achievement on the implementation of the 2005 World Summit;

13. Agree that the Zone must be a forum for the development of cooperation among its Member States in areas such as science and technology, education, capacity building, coastal surveillance, environment, defense, strengthening of national institutions, trade, sports, tourism, economy, communications, transport, culture and political dialogue, recalling the strong potential the South Atlantic presents for the socio-economic development of the Member States of the Zone;

14. Decide that the Zone must be revitalized in order to promote increased dialogue, cooperation initiatives and collaboration for the direct benefit of all Members of the Zone, and in this regard welcome the Luanda Action Plan and the adoption of the Montevideo Action Plan, based on the results of the workshop held in Brasilia in December 2010, as well as the concrete measures, annexed to the Action Plan.

15. Stress that the implementation of the objectives of the Zone requires the strengthening of capacities of its Member States, including through the exchange of best practices in the areas identified for the revitalization of the Zone;
Global Governance

16. Welcome the ongoing efforts aimed at reforming the United Nations in order to render the Organization better equipped to deal with the current challenges to international peace and security. In this regard, call for an urgent reform of the Security Council –an essential element of our overall effort to reform the United Nations –and express support for its enlargement in order to make it more broadly representative for the developing countries, efficient and transparent and, thus, to further enhance its effectiveness, its legitimacy and the implementation of its decisions. Moreover, consider the essential need of revitalization of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council".

17. Recognize the importance of the global financial architecture in maintaining the stability and integrity of the global monetary and financial system. Call for a more representative international financial architecture, with an increase in the voice and representation of developing countries, which are now significant contributors to global recovery;

18. Recall the fact that most of the Members of the Zone have either ratified or signed the Rome statute and recognize that the former and current prosecutor of the ICC are nationals of Member States of the Zone;

19. Welcome the 10th anniversary of the entry into force of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, recognize the important contribution of the International Criminal Court to the fight against impunity for the most serious crimes of international concern, express concern about some Security Council practices regarding the referrals already made to the Court, and stress the importance of full and consistent cooperation by all members of the international community with the International Criminal Court.

Disarmament

20. Reiterate our commitment to consolidating the South Atlantic as a Zone of Peace and Cooperation, free from nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction;, and call upon other States to recognize it as such;

21. Affirm that the very existence of weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons, continues to pose a grave threat to mankind and to instigate tension and mistrust among peoples;

22. Consider that the advancement of the multilateral disarmament agenda – in particular the need to fulfill the nuclear disarmament obligations under the NPT – should be a matter of high priority for the Member States of the Zone;

23. Express our support for the conclusion of a legally-binding comprehensive framework of mutually reinforcing instruments, including a Nuclear Weapons Convention, that lead to effective, irreversible and transparent nuclear disarmament with a view to achieve the objective of the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons. Such a framework should include clearly defined benchmarks, timelines, and be backed by a strong system of verification;

24. Remain concerned about the danger to humanity posed by the possibility that nuclear weapons could be used, and recall the expression of deep concern by the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons;

25. Note that nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation are inextricably linked, requiring continuous and irreversible progress on both fronts;

26. Highlight the importance of the Plan of Action agreed at the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), in particular the steps by the Nuclear-Weapon-States to fulfill their unequivocal undertaking to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals;

27. Recall the 1994 Declaration of the Zone on the Denuclearization of the South Atlantic adopted by the Third Ministerial meeting and accordingly undertake all efforts to prohibit and prevent in their respective territories and jurisdictional waters, the testing, use, manufacture, production, acquisition, receipt, storage, installation, deployment and possession of any nuclear weapon, as well as to refrain from engaging in, encouraging or authorizing, directly or indirectly, any of these activities in the South Atlantic; In this sense, call on the international community to adhere to the status of the Zone;

28. Note with satisfaction the 45th anniversary of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and that both this Treaty and the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) are now in force and in this regard urge the international community to fully observe the denuclearized status of the Zone;

29. Also note with appreciation the 20th anniversary of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the only existing bi-national organization of safeguards in the world;

30. Reaffirm the commitment to nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the three pillars of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty and in this regard, reaffirm the inalienable rights of the Member States of the Zone to engage in research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination in conformity with articles I, II, III and IV of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty;

31. Express their continued support to a successful convening of the Conference on the Establishment of a Zone Free from Nuclear Weapons and All Other Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East;

32. Stress the need for the full implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate of the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects, and support efforts to curb the illegal flow of arms and ammunition, particularly within the Zone;

33. Underline the need also to regulate the legal trade in conventional arms, including small arms and light weapons and ammunition, and express their support for the Final United Nations Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty, to be held in March 2013;

34. Urge States that have not done so to sign, ratify and implement the “Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on their Destruction” and to cooperate in the field of demining and on issues relating to international cooperation and assistance, including victim assistance;

35. Welcome the 15th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention and, while calling on all States that have not yet done so to join the CWC, express appreciation for the fact that all members of the Zone are members of the OPCW;

36. Recalls the resolutions adopted by the United Nations General Assembly related to a nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere and adjacent areas, and welcomes the continued contribution that the Antarctic Treaty and the treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba are making towards freeing the southern hemisphere and adjacent areas covered by those treaties from nuclear weapons;

Peace and Security

37. Reaffirm the importance of preventive diplomacy, mediation, good offices, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding for the maintenance of international peace and security as well as their key role in avoiding the escalation of disputes into conflicts and in advancing conflict resolution.

38. Reaffirm further the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, and stress the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase their role in decision-making with regards to conflict prevention and resolution;

39. Reaffirm also our commitment to promote and protect the rights and welfare of children in armed conflicts. Welcome the significant advances and innovations that have been achieved over the past several years. Welcome in particular the adoption of Security Council resolution 2068 (2012) of 16 September of 2012 and previous Resolutions on this matter;

40. Share a common view that the international community must be rigorous and constant in its efforts to value, pursue and exhaust all peaceful and diplomatic means available in dealing with situations of conflict, in line with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations;

41. Recall the 2005 UN Summit Outcome Document and the responsibility of each Member State to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, and recognize the helpful contribution by Brazil through the concept of the Responsibility while Protecting as an important complement to the concept of the Responsibility to Protect and express our willingness to engage in further dialog on this relevant issue;

42. Stress that special attention must be given to the interdependence between security and development, as they are mutually supportive and key in achieving sustainable peace. Underline that many conflicts have a strong socioeconomic component, which normally aggravates other conflict drivers. Acknowledge the need to ensure that UN activities designed to help countries build peace, promote human rights and the rule of law, reduce poverty, and build strong democratic States are appropriately and effectively integrated;

43. Welcome the positive developments underway in African countries, in particular in those Member States of the Zone in post-conflict situations and invite the international community, including the United Nations, regional and sub-regional organizations and international financial institutions, to complement and strengthen the peacebuilding and development efforts being made by the governments of these countries;

44. Express our willingness to contribute to the enhancement of the existing mechanisms and capacities of prevention and peaceful resolution of conflicts within the Zone, as well as support peacebuilding efforts in the increasing number of countries emerging from conflict in Africa, in particular Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR), including through the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and the African Union Framework for Reconstruction and Development;

45. Express support for the leadership of the African Union Peace and Security Council in its efforts to prevent and resolve conflicts in Africa according to Chapter VIII of the Charter, bearing in mind the primary responsibility of the United Nations Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with the United Nations Charter. In this regard, commend the progress made in the resolution of conflicts in Africa and call upon the international community to continue to complement efforts aimed at achieving lasting and durable solutions to remaining armed conflicts;

46. Express deep concern over the negative role of the illegal exploitation of natural resources in fuelling conflicts and note with satisfaction the ongoing efforts in Africa, in particular by Member States of the Zone, for the implementation of a legal framework aimed at tackling this practice and to this effect, call upon the international community to support this effort.

47. Stress the importance of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, to which some Member States of the Zone are major contributors, and in this regard, recognize the potential for cooperation to strengthen the capacity of the Member States of the Zone to participate in peacekeeping operations;

48. Reaffirm also the need to support current peace processes and United Nations peacekeeping operations currently deployed in Member Sates of the Zone. In this regard, reiterate the need to further explore cooperative mechanisms and opportunities in the field of peacekeeping operations;

49. Stress the importance of international support on issues such as capacity building, logistics, information exchange and cooperation among national peacekeeping training schools and between these and and Regional Peacekeeping Training Centers, among others;

50. Express support for the full implementation of the zero tolerance policy regarding cases of crimes committed by personnel deployed in the United Nations field missions, particularly in cases of sexual exploitation and abuse affecting women and children, and welcome efforts being undertaken by Member States of the Zone to address such violations;

51. Recognize the importance of the role of regional and sub-regional peacekeeping operations, such as the current African Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) operations, as a complement to the role of the United Nations in this area in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter and the primary responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the maintenance of international peace and security, and stress the need to further develop this role through capacity building and cooperation among the Member States of the Zone;

52. Further welcome the adoption by the Security Council of resolution 2033 (2012) regarding cooperation and coordination between the United Nations and regional organizations, in particular the African Union, commend the African Union for the establishment of a Standby force and stress the need for the full implementation of the 2005 World Summit Outcome regarding a 10-year Plan for capacity building with the African Union;

53. Express the determination of Member States of the Zone to prevent and eliminate terrorism, in accordance with international law, including the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant international conventions and protocols, in particular human rights law, refugee law and international humanitarian law;

54. Reaffirm the necessity of bringing to a speedy and unconditional end colonialism in all its forms and manifestations;

55. View with concern the continuation of situations that adversely affect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of some Member States of the Zone;

56. Support efforts by Member States of the Zone in promoting the principle of settling disputes by peaceful means and in finding negotiated solutions to territorial disputes affecting Member States of the Zone;

57. Call for the resumption of negotiations between the Governments of the Argentine Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in accordance with General Assembly resolution 2065 (XX) and other relevant resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly on the “Question of the Malvinas Islands (Falkland)” with a view to finding as soon as possible a peaceful, just and durable solution to the sovereignty dispute;

58. Reaffirm GA resolution 31/49 which requires both parties in the sovereignty dispute over the Malvinas Islands, South Georgias Islands and South Sandwich Islands and the maritime surrounding areas, to refrain from taking decisions that would imply introducing unilateral modifications in the situation while the islands are going through the process recommended by the General Assembly resolutions. In this context, view with concern the development of illegitimate hydrocarbon exploration activities in the area under dispute, as well as the reinforcement of the military presence by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the area, in violation of UNGA Resolution 31/49.

Defense

59. Welcome the participation of Defense Ministers in the Ministerial Meeting of the Zone and the engagement of officials of the Ministries of Defense in the process towards this meeting, which allows for new opportunities of cooperation in the field of defense;

60. Decide to strengthen cooperation for peaceful purposes in the field of defense;

61. Recognize that the members of the Zone share a common interest in reinforcing the South Atlantic as a Zone of Peace and Cooperation, free from nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction;

62. Welcome the initiatives related to Defense envisaged in the Montevideo Plan of Action and express their commitment to further intensify cooperation in the framework of the Zone;

63. Acknowledge that initiatives aim at further increasing confidence among Member States of the Zone in defense-related issues and at strengthening defense cooperation partnerships, so that the Zone reinforces its presence in the South Atlantic region;

64. Acknowledge further that initiatives should include mechanisms for efficient exchange of information among competent authorities and relevant institutions, military exercises, official visits, exchanges and other defense capacity-building programs among Member States of the Zone.

Development, including Economic and Financial Issues

65. Affirm our commitment to finalizing the Doha Development Round of trade negotiations based on the existing mandates, which place development issues at the centre of the agenda, and on progress made to date;

66. Express serious concern at the lack of progress in the Doha Development Round of the World Trade Organization negotiations and reiterate the call for the necessary flexibility and political will in order to break the current impasse in the negotiations, and for a balanced, ambitious, comprehensive and development oriented outcome of the Doha Development Agenda multilateral trade negotiations;

67. Affirm our willingness to promote increased trade and investment relations within the Zone and remain committed to an open and non-discriminatory, rules-based multilateral trade system, recognizing its positive impact in addressing the international financial crisis, as well as to growth and development;

68. Express deep concern with the present global economic and financial crisis. In this context, emphasize that austerity policies alone will not solve these problems. They must be accompanied by substantive policies designed to foster economic growth and social inclusion, including fiscal stimulus to investment;

69. Recognize the continuing need to promote global growth that produces sustainable benefits for reducing poverty;

70. Reaffirms that there is an urgent need to create an environment at the national and international levels that is conducive to the attainment of full and productive employment and decent work for all as a foundation for sustainable development and that an environment that supports investment, growth and entrepreneurship is essential to the creation of new job opportunities, and also reaffirms that opportunities for men and women to obtain productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity are essential to ensuring the eradication of hunger and poverty, the improvement of economic and social well-being for all, the achievement of sustained economic growth and sustainable development of all nations and a fully inclusive and equitable globalization;

71. Calls upon donors and international financial institutions to support developing countries, in line with their national priorities and strategies, in achieving their (social and economic) development by, inter alia, providing debt relief, concessionary aid and grants to support national efforts to enhance fiscal space, in particular that of the poorer and the least developed countries and should not impose onerous conditionalities that restrict the policy space of national Governments;

72. Call for the abolition of unfair trade practices, in particular in agriculture, and express their desire for a more just and fair global trading system for the benefit and welfare of the peoples of the Zone;

73. Acknowledge the potential for trade within the Zone, recognize the need to improve lines of communication and transportation, and express their intention to foster economic and commercial exchanges as well as the role of the private sector and civil society, and agree to actively support all efforts to intensify business cooperation as well as other activities geared towards increasing trade, investment and improve capital flows among Member States of the Zone;

74. Emphasize the clear need to intensify and diversify connectivity between the countries of the Zone, in terms of air and maritime transport and reiterate that synergies have to be identified in order to strengthen cooperation, taking into account that the economic enablement of air and maritime connections will demand long term efforts. To this end, encourage the consideration of additional initiatives, in order to make the connectivity between the two shores of the South Atlantic economically viable;

75. Emphasize that Member-States could benefit from the exchange of experiences in the area of seaport efficiency. To this end encourage Zone members to intensify dialogue on such policies, to disseminate good practices and to share experiences gained in implementing projects to improve efficiency in the management and competitiveness of seaports.

76. Stress the need for the United Nations to play a fundamental role in the promotion of international cooperation for development and the coherence, coordination and implementation of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, and actions agreed upon by the international community;

77. Agree on the need to attach priority to the fight against hunger and poverty and emphasize the need for the international community to fulfill previously agreed funding to the UN Development Agenda with special focus on the Millennium Development Goals, as well as to promote innovative sources of additional funding on a sustainable basis to enable the fulfillment of the internationally agreed development goals;

78. Express concern that, despite important progresses achieved by individual countries, Africa as a continent is not on track to achieve the goals of the United Nations Millennium Declaration by 2015, and in this regard emphasize that concerted efforts and continued support are required to fulfill the commitments and to address the special needs of Africa;

79. Emphasize the need for the international community to fully implement the global partnership for sustainable development in order to operationalize and implement, at all levels, the commitments in the outcomes of the major United Nations conferences and summits, including the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20);

80. Underline the need for exchange of information on successful national experiences, lessons learnt as well as for technology transfer and facilitated access to scientific knowledge in order to foster south-south cooperation in, among others, the areas of Clean Fuels and Environmentally Friendly Energy/Biofuel, Agricultural and Livestock Production, Human Resource Development, HIV and AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, Biotechnology, Education, Infrastructure Development, Communication Technology, Marine Scientific Research and Fisheries Control and Surveillance;

81. Acknowledge the cultural linkages between Africa and South America. In this sense, encourage the enhancement of cultural cooperation bearing in mind the significance of the African Diaspora in South American countries. Encourage also greater exchanges among their respective civil society including among non-governmental organizations related to youth, women, sports, among others.

82. Emphasize the role of regional and sub-regional integration in improving international competitiveness of national economies and contributing to their development and recognize the importance of coordination with regional and sub-regional organizations within the space of the Zone, such as MERCOSUR, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). In this regard, express the importance of the Preferential Trade Agreement between the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), signed on 15 December, 2008 in Costa de Sauipe, Brazil, and 3 April, 2009, in Maseru, Lesotho, to enhance economic cooperation and trade between both regions;
Sustainable Development and Climate Change

83. Affirm our commitment to a more just, equitable and prosperous future. In this regard, welcome the outcome document "The Future We Want" of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development hosted by Brazil in June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro (Rio + 20). Rio+20 was an important milestone in the promotion of sustainable development from which many processes have been launched. In this context, stress the importance of ensuring further commitment to the ongoing work on the outcomes of Rio+20 during the 67th Session of the UN General Assembly;

84. Remain convinced that consensual decisions achieved through multilateralism are the best foundation for progress in the collective endeavors to achieve sustainable development. In this context, we believe that poverty eradication must be at the center of the debate on the future we want.

85. We recognize that the definition of Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs - will contribute to give focus and direction to our collective efforts; In this regard we stress the importance of a successful process towards the establishment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), that follows up on the process launched in Rio+20, and to that end we reaffirm our commitment to collectively work in the context of the open the intergovernmental working group to be constituted under the United Nations General Assembly, aiming at the establishment of these goals;

86. Agree that Rio+20 helped raise awareness about the crucial importance of sustainable development throughout civil society and particularly among the youth. We are certain it will have a lasting impact not only on future discussions on sustainable development, but also in the way individuals, businesses and Governments understand and act on economic, social and environmental issues. Now future generations have a basis to push forward the construction of the sustainable world we envisaged in Rio;

87. Reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time to which developing countries are particularly vulnerable, reiterate our call for urgent global action and cooperation for an effective international response to fight against the negative effects of climate change and stress the importance of the full implementation of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on the basis of equity and in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities;

88. Also stress the importance of enhanced ambition by Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC under the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, while emphasizing that adaptation to climate change represents an immediate and urgent priority for developing countries;

89. Stress that South-South Cooperation is based on solidarity and could be a useful tool to be used by Member States to face the challenges of development and promote economic and social progress. In this sense, emphasize the wide opportunities for cooperation between Member States in the exchange and strengthening of technical capacities in areas yet identified and prioritized, such as the mapping and exploration of the Area in the framework of the International Seabed Authority, environmental cooperation, cooperation in the area of air and maritime transportation, port security, inter alia;

90. Underline the importance of enhancing scientific and technical cooperation in the prioritized areas of interest and call for the consideration of further proposals for joint actions;

Oceans and Marine Resources

91. Welcome the commitments on oceans and seas taken at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), in June 2012, at Rio de Janeiro, expressed in the outcome document of the Conference, “The Future We Want”;

92. Further welcome the 30th anniversary of the opening for signature of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), on 10 December 1982 at Montego Bay, Jamaica, and recognize the contribution of the Convention to the strengthening of peace, security, cooperation and friendly relations among all nations in conformity with the principles of justice and equal rights and to the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples of the world, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, recognize the importance of UNCLOS to advancing sustainable development and welcomes its nearly universal acceptance;

93. Recall the conclusions of the Third Preparatory Workshop on the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic held in Buenos Aires in 2007, devoted to the issues of “sustainable use of marine genetic resources of areas beyond national jurisdiction” and “measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing”, as well as their support to the conservation of marine mammals and their wish to cooperate on the non-lethal use of cetaceans. In this regard, support, in the scope of the International Whaling Commission (IWC), the proposal to establish the South Atlantic Whale Sanctuary;

94. Emphasize that the development of a legal regime to govern Genetic Marine Resources of areas beyond national jurisdiction must be based on the relevant principles contained in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,, recall the Outcome Document of Rio+20, especially its paragraph 162, and reaffirm our commitment to address, on an urgent basis and in the framework of the Ad Hoc Working Group established by the General Assembly, the issue of the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, including by taking a decision on the development of an implementing agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and to continue to coordinate positions on the basis of the relevant paragraphs of the Ministerial Declarations of the Group of 77 and China adopted on 23 September 2011 and on 28 September 2012 . In this regard, also encourage full involvement of the International Seabed Authority;

95. Acknowledge that the sustainable and equitable use of Genetic Marine Resources presents an opportunity for cooperation among the Member States of the Zone and recall the need for access to technology and enhanced international cooperation to achieve the sustainable and equitable use of those resources;

96. Agree on the importance of continuing to coordinate positions regarding genetic marine resources of areas beyond national jurisdiction, including on the legal regime applicable to them, access and benefit sharing derived from the exploration and exploitation of those resources which shall be carried out for the benefit of mankind as a whole, irrespective of the geographical location of States, in particular developing ones, in light of the mandate of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group established under the General Assembly to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction;

97. In that sense, welcome the conservation measures that coastal States are adopting regarding their continental shelf to address the impact of bottom fishing on vulnerable marine ecosystems, as well as their efforts to ensure compliance with those measures;

98. Further recall the 1996 Decision of the Zone on IUU fishing, adopted by the Fourth Ministerial Meeting, and express great concern over the continuation of such practices in the jurisdictional waters of Member States of the Zone, and note that institutional capacities to deter, prevent and combat IUU fishing, as well as illegal spillage and dumping of toxic waste, should be strengthened, including through cooperation, assistance and research;

99. Recall the role ship crews play in protecting the maritime community in observing and reporting suspicious activities onboard their vessels and surrounding areas and welcome the adoption and continuing review, by the International Maritime Organization and the International Labour Organization, of guidelines on fair treatment of seafarers and encourage all States, including States in the Zone, to put in place mechanisms protecting the human rights of seafarers;

100. Stress that one of the principal means to combat IUU fishing is responsible Flag and Port State measures consistent with international law;

101. Recall that States, in “the Future We Want”, recognized the need for transparency and accountability in fisheries management by regional fisheries management organizations. Recognize the efforts already made by those regional fisheries management organizations that have undertaken independent performance reviews, and call upon all regional fisheries management organizations to regularly undertake such reviews and make the results publicly available. We encourage implementation of the recommendations of such reviews and recommend that the comprehensiveness of those reviews be strengthened over time, as necessary.

102. Stress the need for all Member States of the Zone to maintain effective Flag State controls, including through the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) and to prevent and combat the issuance of flags of convenience;

103. Express serious concern over subsidies to the fishing industry, particularly by developed countries, as they contribute to IUU fishing, fishing overcapacity, and overfishing in the coastal waters of Member States of the Zone, and recall that, in “The Future we want”, States reaffirmed their commitment in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation to eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and overcapacity, taking into account the importance of this sector to developing countries, and we reiterate our commitment to conclude multilateral disciplines on fisheries subsidies that will give effect to the mandates of the World Trade Organization Doha Development Agenda and the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration to strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiations.

104. Call on Member States of the Zone to develop programs to help them benefit from increasing revenues from their fisheries resources in order to combat IUU fishing in jurisdictional waters, in particular in African Members States of the Zone;

105. Reaffirm the importance of implementing the 1993 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) “Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels in the High Seas” as well as other FAO Plans of Action and call upon those Member States of the Zone who have not yet done so to consider becoming parties to the aforementioned FAO Agreement;

106. Emphasize the need to strengthen the national institutions and the capacity through cooperation and joint research for the effective administration of fishing resources and the combat of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing;

107. Recall the 1994 Declaration of the Zone on the Marine Environment adopted by the Third Ministerial Meeting and the 1996 Decision on the same issue adopted by Fourth Ministerial Meeting and underscore that pollution and toxic residues are a problem that should be dealt with, including through cooperation among the Member States of the Zone;
International crime

108. Express concern at the threat that piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea pose to the international navigation, maritime security and economic development of States in the region, recognize the leadership role that the States in the Zone should play in this regard and the need for a regional coordination of efforts to counter activities of piracy and armed robbery at sea.

109. Concerned with the damage being done to economic development efforts and destruction of essential infrastructure, urge support for multilateral efforts on the development of international legislation to track the origin and sale of stolen crude oil thereof.

110. Urge international partners to assist States and organizations of the region for the enhancement of their capabilities to counter piracy and armed robbery at sea in the Gulf of Guinea, including their capacity to conduct regional patrols, to establish and maintain joint coordination centres and joint information-sharing centres, and for the effective implementation of the regional strategy, once adopted, as mandated in the UNSC resolutions 2018 (2011) and 2039 (2012).

111. Express their concern regarding the illicit traffic of drugs and psychotropic substances as well as transnational organized crime and agree that high priority must be given to combating these problems, as they represent a threat to the public security and development of Member States and to the well being of their peoples;

112. Recognize that transnational organized crime, human trafficking, particularly of women and children, money laundering, corruption, piracy, drug trafficking, illicit trade in small arms and light weapons are interrelated, and emphasize the need for comprehensive and integrated strategies within the Zone to effectively combat these scourges, and in this regard further emphasize that the implementation of national policies and strategies must be complemented by regional and international agreements, including among the Member States of the Zone;

113. Recall the 1996 Decision of the Zone on Drug Trafficking adopted by the Fourth Ministerial Meeting and stress the need for cooperation among origin, transit and destination countries in combating illicit arms and drugs, as well as in reinforcing border security and control, taking into account the principle of common and shared responsibility;

114. Reiterate the commitment in deepening cooperation and articulation of Member States joint actions facing world drug problem;

115. Stress the importance in advancing towards that objective in the framework of an integral approach, considering the reduction of supply and demand in a balanced manner, under the principle of common and shared responsibility, the respect of human rights and international law;

116. Urge States that have not done so to become parties to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three supplementary protocols.
Final provisions

117. Republic for their valuable work as previous coordinators of the Zone from 1998 to 2007;

118. Commend the Government of Angola for its significant contribution to the revitalization of the Zone, particularly by generating the “Luanda Initiative” as a roadmap for the preparatory process of the Seventh Ministerial Meeting, comprising workshops on issues of common interest held in New York in March 2007, in Montevideo in 2007, in Buenos Aires in May 2007, and in Brasilia in December 2010;

119. Express gratitude and appreciation to the Government and the People of Express gratitude to Brazil, Nigeria, South Africa and the Argentine Uruguay for their warm hospitality and generosity and the excellent arrangements made for the holding of this Meeting;

120. Agree to hold its Ministerial Meeting on a biennial basis;

121. Also agree to establish a follow-up mechanism under the joint leadership of the current and former Chairs of the zones, as well as the Chair of the subsequent Ministerial Meeting;

122. Further agree to convene annual meetings of the Zone at the margins of the General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), to review progress made and agree on further actions aimed at promoting the objectives of the Zone, including the annual submission of a UNGA Resolutions on the initiative;

123. Welcome with appreciation the offer by the Government of Cape Verde to host the Eight Ministerial Meeting of the Zone;

124. Agree to adopt the annexed Plan of Action and request the current Chair to create the necessary conditions, including institutional ones, for its implementation.

Issued in Montevideo on January 16th 2013